TRAINING OF TRAINERS 2018

Cross Section of participants at the Workshop

WEST AFRICA KEY STAKEHOLDERS WORKSHOP ON ECOLOGICAL ORGANIC AGRICULTURE–INITIATIVE IN AFRICA

Executing Agency of Ecological Organic Agriculture Initiative in Africa, Biovision Africa Trust (BvAT), organised a five-day workshop on the Ecological Organic Agriculture Initiative (EOA-I) in West Africa after a similar programme in Machakos, Kenya in East Africa which had in attendance stakeholders from; Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda and Tanzania). The workshop took place between 13th and 17th of August 2018 at Riviera Hotel, Cotonou, Republic of Benin. This exercise brought together 40 participants from Nigeria, Mali, Senegal and Benin.

Welcoming the gathering to the workshop, Professor Simplice Davo Vodouhe, from the University of Abomey-Calavi (UAC), Cotonou, thanked the participants for gracing the occasion and hoped the opportunity would provide a fruitful and engaging session. That this will afford them the platform to share experiences and learn from each other. Mr Aimé Bokonon-Ganta, the Chair of the Benin EOA National Steering Committee welcomed the participants to Benin and to the workshop and looked forward to having successful deliberations. In his opening remarks, Dr David Amudavi, the Executive Director of Biovision Africa Trust was glad to have a good number of participants from implementing West African countries (Mali, Senegal, Nigeria and Benin) of the Initiative. He highlighted the importance of the workshop, as an opportunity for the stakeholders to validate two major findings of Phase 1; the Organizational and partner Capacity Assessment report and the External Evaluation Report.

During this planning workshop, the stakeholders shared their success stories, achievements, weaknesses and way-forward for EOA-I’ 1st phase. Afterwards, the participants at the programme considered strategic areas that could be addressed to help achieve the Initiative’ aims and objectives.

Furthermore, the gathering considered two (2) general salient points considered critical to the success of the Initiative in the region:  robust monitoring and evaluation (M&E) framework and Effective grant Management.

The workshop enabled stakeholders to provide vital information which would serve as basis inputs for planning for the preparation of the grand proposal for support by the Swiss Government through its agency, the Swiss Development Cooperation, in the next phase of four years.

In his closing remarks, the Beninese minister of Agriculture ably represented by Mr Kwakanou Bonaventure, the permanent secretary of the ministry, lauded the Initiative and reaffirmed the support of the government to organic agriculture. Pointing at the fact that agriculture is the bedrock for sustainable development, Mr Bonaventure stated that the emergence of Ecological Organic Agriculture Initiative paves ways for a sound food security system in the region in particular and in Africa in general. Thereafter bidding the participants safe journey back to their various destinations.

REMINDER!!!

This is to announce to the general public that the 14th Organic Conference themed: Organic Agriculture: Food Security, Improved Nutrition and Sustainable Agriculture”, has been re-scheduled for 25th and 29th November, 2018. Please take not of the new development; apologies for the change in the date, all information except the date on the fliers remain valid. Thank you.

ASSOCIATION OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE PRACTITIONERS OF NIGERIA CELEBRATES HER 10TH ANNIVERSARY (5TH SEPT., 2008 -5TH SEPT.,2018.)

NOABS2017PRESENTATION: PARTICIPATORY GUARANTEE SYSTEM (PGS) – DOMESTIC TRADE IN ORGANIC, LOCAL ORGANIC MARKET INITIATIVES

PRESENTATION: PARTICIPATORY GUARANTEE SYSTEM (PGS) – DOMESTIC TRADE IN ORGANIC, LOCAL ORGANIC MARKET INITIATIVES

BY MR OLUWAFEMI .E. AYANFEOLUWA

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Organic Agriculture entails the production methods that employ organic factors of production and adhire strictly to the principles of organic agriculture for production  and   qualify for certification.Organic agriculture is a crucial step to attaining stable human health at the level of every inhabitant on earth. It promotes foods that are biologically convertible and non-damaging to human health. Organic agriculture has its basic feature as it relies on local, renewable resources, efficient use of solar energy and the production potential of biological systems. Maintains or increase the fertility of the soil, recirculation of plant nutrients and organic matter, does not use substances foreign to nature, maintains genetic diversity in farming system and surrounding areas, gives farm animal’s life conditions that correspond to their ecological role and allows them natural behaviour.

There have been different lectures on the importance of certification during the summit, but this trainning session is aimed harmonizing all that there is to know about certification. Certification is as an accreditation exercise carried out in an organic system to ensure that all organic standards are practiced. There are three (3) levels of certification in organic agriculture:

  • Third party Certification
  • Participartory Guarantee System (PGS)
  • Self acclaimed

Self acclaimed is a type of certification where it is only the farmer, farmer’s family and trusted friends that know that he is practising organic agriculture and patronizes him/her. Third party certification is a system of certification carried out mainly for the purpose of exportation. The standards for this certification vary with each country but they all have their bases from the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movement (IFOAM) standards.  This system of certification is expensive and most peasant farmers can’t afford it. Certification bodies that certify for each country have their Internal Control System (ICS) in countries where they are not present that help to ensure that organizations maintain their exportation standards.

The Participatory Guarantee System (PGS) is a form of organic certification system of regulation which is designed to ensure that organic producers comply with standards, quality of organic production and processing, prevent fraud and promote commerce.  This Certification is for producers of organic foods and other organic agricultural products. Increase in the demand and popularity for organic produce and products has led to small farmers not only selling their produce to farmers market but also sells of organic produce in the supermarkets, exportation, etc. hence there is need for certification. Certification aids in giving a unified standard for production, processing, storage, labelling and marketing system. This helps in building the trust between the consumer and buyer and protect the genuine producer from unfair competition.

PGS is a type of certification and was implemented due to the cost implication of third party certification. This is a quality assurance system that uses its own standards which has its bases from IFOAM standards and these standards are adaptive to local conditions and inputs such as: communities, geographic area, culture, market structures, methods of exhibition, etc. This involves an agreement between stakeholders in the agriculture chain (the farmer, the certification body, the researchers the middle man and the consumer); members are guided with a set of rules and common vision which is based on trust (no cheating, timely delivery, worthiness, sharing of common ideas, respect and value). However PGS is not a substitute for Internal Control System (ICS) or third party certification.

OBJECTIVE

Training and equipping participants with the knowledge, skill and how participants can form domestic trade and market initiatives in organic agriculture.

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.1 The Philosophy of PGS

Participatory Guarantee System (PGS) shares the same common goal with third party certification system which is to provide a credible guarantee system for consumers of organic products, however the difference in approach is that PGS allows for participation of all stakeholders involved from the farmers to the consumers while third party certification doesn’t.

 

1.2.      PGS Fundamentals

VISION: A common vision brings stakeholders in PGS together for goals to be achieved.

TRUST: trust involving mutual understanding, inclusiveness and balanced share division among members

PARTICIPATION: There is a direct involvement between parties and checking on what has been agreed on before anything is being carried out.

TRANSPARENCY: Stakeholders are transparent and open in all activities carried out.

LEARNING PROCESSES among the stakeholders to understand better what is involved in achieving the set goals.

1.3. PGS Key Element

The key element in PGS is the rule of HORIZONTALITY which implies that everyone in this group is on the same level; no one is superior to the other.

1.4. Features of PGS

  • Norms and values are conceived by stakeholders
  • This has a grassroots organization.
  • It is appropriate for small farm holders
  • Documentation of inputs/activities/farm practices/profits/ income and expenses (appropriate record keeping).
  • There should be a mechanism to verify farmer’s compliance e.g unscheduled visits to the farms.
  • Mechanism for supporting farmers for instance paying upfront for farm production.
  • Farmer’s pledge; a set of rules stated out which the farmer reads and appends his/her signature to it.
  • Seal/ label
  • Clear and previously defined consequences, for instance suspension/expelsion for a defaulting partner

1.5. Groups Involved in PGS

  1. Farmer’s family
  2. Local group- the executives among a group of farmers.
  3. Regional council
  4. National certification committee for instance National Organic Agriculture of Nigeria (NOAN).

1.6 Role of Local Group in PGS

  1. This the local contact point for PGS.
  2. They coordinate the inspection of members.
  3. Local support network for members like sharing experiences and assistance.
  4. Decision making for certification.
  5. Action against fraud or non-compliance where the nature of punishment is dependent on the level of fraud.
  6. Ensures that individual farmers sign his/her pledge and it is collected and sent to the regional council.
  7. Tenders report on recent developments among the farmers periodically could be yearly.

1.7. Steps in Certification

  • Read the standards and pledge then sign.
  • Inspection among peers to ensure that practices are in accordance to standards.
  • Decision on appraisals.
  • Issuance of certificate and it is valid for one year and renewed annually.
  • Random pesticide sampling.

 

1.8 Feed Backs

          QUESTIONS

  1. Can there be central certification system for exportation into all the country? By Mr. Musa Labaran
  2. Is there any exportation/importation standard for organic products in Nigeria? By Mr. Abara
  3. What is the difference between PGS and ICS? By Engr. Keyen Neol
  4. Can NOAN partner with ADP to train local farmers to form organic farmers group? By Mr Victor Edame
  5. How feasible is it for consumers to partake actively in PGS? By Mrs. Sadiq
  6. What is the qualification for people in peer inspection? By Engr. Keyen Neol
  7. How flexible in the horizontality that exist among stakeholders in PGS? By Engr. Keyen Neol

 RESPONSES/ CONTRIBUTIONS

  1. All the organic standards are drafted from IFOAM but there are variations with respect to each country, therefore they can’t be a central certification body for all the countries. Mrs choima Okeke further explained that different certification per country is due to the specific needs of each country which may not be stated in IFOAM standard, stating that even in professional certifications different requirements are needed per country
  2. Yes there is thou it is currently under review.
  3. ICS operates under the third party certification bodies, it serves as an internal check if the organizations certified abide under the rules of third party certification, ICS doesn’t have the ability to certify for operation at any level but PGS does.
  4. Yes NOAN can that is why ADPs of participating states were invited.
  5. This is very feasible since pgs certification is mainly carried out within a locality, however it may not be all the customers that may be involved but may have representatives such as middleman.
  6. The peer inspector does not need any qualification, the peer inspector is usually one of the stakeholders used as an internal check to ensure that stakeholders adhere to the rules.
  7. Kate Kibarah of kates organics of Kenya explained this question with respect to what is obtainable in Kenya, stating that the flexibility of the horizontality of stakeholders is possible because most of the stakeholders are already members of the Kenya organic agriculture movement and they already understand what is obtainable in PGS. Therefore better knowledge of organic agricultural practices helps in easy involvement and defined boundaries.
  8. Kate kibarah suggested that if countries in west Africa come together to form a unified certification body for west Africa, exportation of organic products within in west african countries will be easy as this is obtainable in east Africa.

 

1.9 Conclusion

The PGS Training will assist in domestic trade in organic agriculture and bring about local network between farmers through local organic markets initiatives by training them on national and local standards. Farmer’s involvement may however increase if there is assurance of a ready market for their produce and consumers increase if they are sure they would get value for their money. Therefore increase in the awareness of the practice and benefit of organic agriculture is necessary increase stakeholders in the organic agriculture value chain in any geographical location.

NOABS2017 Presentation – BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES IN ORGANIC AGRICULTURE

PRESENTATION TWO: BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES IN ORGANIC AGRICULTURE

BY Dr. O.O. AdeOluwa.

Organic Agriculture has various advantages over the conventional agriculture and the exponential increase in the demand for organic products therefore there are several business opportunities available to venture into in order to meet up with the demands of agricultural products and produce. Understanding the dynamics of any agricultural product in terms of best methods of production and identifying where it really needed enhances the lucrativeness of any agricultural enterprise. Meekness, credibility and years of exposure is required to sustain these businesses.

There are various business opportunities in organic agriculture among such business opportunities are;

  • Crop production
  • Animal production (domestic, aquatic and wild such as bee(honey and wax), mushroom, games, etc).
  • Handling of organic products (middle men)
  • Processing of Organic products such as use of orange peels to produce oil, cosmetics, food, drinks, clothes from organic cotton,etc.
  • Organic inputs such as seeds, fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, etc.
  • Production of Machineries used in organic farms.
  • Use of crop waste in the production of oil e.g. orange peels for oil production.
  • Production of organic cosmetics.
  • Organic extension agents.
  • Organic teachers/lecturers/farmers.
  • Project/proposal development.
  • Participant in ECOWAS organic agriculture trade in West Africa.etc.
  • Organic tools and implement such as processing and storage facilities.
  • Certification and accreditation.

 

Feed Back

Questions:

  1. How do you manage weed in a ginger farm?
  2. Can bees be raised in a house and be regarded as organic?

Responses:

  1. Proper/deep tillage at the beginning of the planting season to break roots of stubborn weeds, reducing the planting distances also help: it may be difficult to weed with hoe in the first weeding but by the subsequent weeding the leaves of the ginger would have covered up and weeds would have been reduced by then.
  2. Bees may be raised in the house if the farmer can provide the bees with all its needs in it.

Contributions:

Some farmers shared their experiences and challenges among them were:

Mrs. ShonoiliSaidat from grenskill enterprise said that an animal nutritionist by training, when she had discovered the harm in consumption of the conventionally raised birds she decided to look for alternative situations.  She discovered that why people that buy chicken in large quantity like hotels do not patronize local chicken breeds is that they are small, take time before they are properly cooked and seasonings do not penetrate them on easily. Understanding the dynamics of the business, she decided to order for foreign organic breeds which are big and soft then compounded feed from organic sources for them with organic antibiotics and still obtain the same results as gotten from the conventional in eight weeks and she was able to sell those birds as organic birds. She also raises this birds in a semi intensive system exposing these birds to a variety of organic herbs for them to feed on. She has an organic shop and this made her meet with various farmers and consumers who are willingly to go into organic agriculture.She also suggested that an organic storage facility should be provided in the country at different locations to encourage better storage of organic farm produce and this will encourage many farmers to venture into organic agriculture as done in china.

MrsSadiq also said that she is a poultry farmer that raises local birds in a semi intensive system of agriculture. She practices preventive agriculture by using neem and bitterleaf extract as antibiotics to boost their immunity against disease outbreak and ginger to keep them warm.

Mr. Oladopo hatches day old chicks organically and says that he sells those chicks for about three hundred naira each. He also practices semi intensive agriculture, though sometimes they may be attacked by hawk but someone must always be around to check them. He uses Fulani cock to mate the hen as they have the ability to mate many bird.

The major challenge perculiar to them is insufficient sources organic feed ingredients and antibiotics  as lack of organic herbicides do not make more farmers want to go into the production of maize, soyabeans, ginger etc.

NOABS2017 PRESENTATION – How to go Organic

PRESENTATION ONE: HOW TO GO ORGANIC

BY MR OYEWOLE GBADAMOSI

1.0 What is Organic Agriculture?

According to the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movement (IFOAM) Organic Agriculture (OA) is defined as a holistic production management system which enhancesagro ecosystem health utilizing both traditional and scientific knowledge. It is a system that relies more on available inputs. Organic agriculture is usually misunderstood to be natural/traditional farming but OA is more than that because it does not only relies on local inputs but also relies on scientific knowledge implying that innovation and external inputs is allowed.

Organic Agriculture has standards and they are various rudiments of organic agriculture for crop and livestock production. There is a manual on standards of organic agriculture production which was reviewed four years ago and will be reviewed again next year.Organic agriculture must be gotten right from the start to avoid use of preventive methods; ignorance in organic agriculture is not an excuse. Summary of items on this manual were discussed.

2.0PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE

Organic Agriculture is premised on four principles:

  • Principle of Health
  • Principle of Ecology
  • Principle of Fairness and
  • Principle of Care.

These principles are the foundation of any organic agriculture practise.

2.1 Principle of Health: These principle point out to the fact that health of individuals and communities cannot be sepreted from the health of the ecosystem: Healthy soils produce healthy crops for healthy humans and health. In Nigeria this is the sellling point of organic agriculture because organic foods contains more antioxidants which deetoxifies the body. Organic agriculture aims at producing high quality food that contribute to nutritive health and well being, in view of this it should avoid the use of synthetic fertilizer, pesticides, food additives that may have adverse effect on health.

2.2 Principle of Ecology: Organic agriculture must be ecology friendly. Production should be based on recycling, that is most of our fertilizers used should be products of recycling/natural processes. OA should attain ecological balance via design of farm, establishment of habitat and maintainance of genetic and agricultural biodiversity.agricultural practises should not dwell only on adoption of recommendations but must adapt based on the ability of any ecosystem. For instance in switzerland importation of organic products into the country must be shipped not air-lifted because when air lifted it is believed to contain more Co2 gas which may lead to further depletion of the ozone layer.

2.3 Principle of Fairness: This ensures fairness at all levels of production for all the stakeholders in the value chain from producer to consumer. For intance goods are bought/sold at fair prices with no cheating.

2.4 Principle of Care: organic agriculture practises preventive agriculture rather than responsive agriculture,implying that extreme care must be considered. Preventive is the key concern in management and technology choice in OA. Organic agriculture should prevent significant risk by adopting and adapting appropriate technology and rejecting unpredictable ones especially genetic enjineering. Any product one cannot trace the source should not be used.

 

 3.0Crop Production

3.1. Land

Land that has been fallowed for at least three years is recommended for organic agriculture production but if the land is still in cultivation with in organic inputs, then it must be cultivated with natural inputs for at least three years for conversion to an organic farm. During the three years of conversion the produce gotten from such farms is regarded as natural produce. This principle on land is applicable to both arable and plantation crops, but if it is a virgin land there is no need for the conversion period.

3.2. Buffer Zone.

A buffer zone must be set of about forty meters (40m) radius round your farm to avoid contaminations/pollution of inorganic inputs from neighbouring farms except the farmer is surrounded by organic farmers.Cultivation of crops must not be carried out within the 40m radius thou if carried out cannot be regarded as organic produce. This gives the differencebetween an ecological farm, a home garden and an organic farm. It is advisable for organic farmers to buy land together to reduce the amount of land used as buffer zone compared to when it is an individual farm.

3.3 Land clearing: land clearing should be done manually or with machineries that have been used in cultivating organic farm only. Bush burning is not allowed because of its adverse effect on the soil ecosystem through the loss of soil microrganisms and rapid volatilization of nutrients. Organic agriculture encourages maintenance/sustenance of soil inherent properties than use of input for maintenance.

3.4. Seed Sources

Seeds used for organic agriculture must not be gotten from Genetically Modified Plant or any other inorganic sources. However seeds gotten from inorganic sources (except GMO sources) can be cultivated naturally for at least three(3) years before it can be regarded as an organic seed, implying that by this type the influence of inorganic inputs on the seeds would be no more.

Locally untreated seeds can also be cultivated for a while and then used as an organic source for seed.

There are natural ways of cleansing treated seeds and turning it organic:

  • Soaking seeds in warm water for about thirty minutes then rinse seeds with water.
  • If it’s a plant that can be raised in a nursery, choose the nursery to be on trays or pots where the soils can easily be discarded before it is transplanted into the field.

Wood ash can be used to treat the seeds organically against fungicide.

3.5 Manure

The source of farm manure must be from organic farms. Fertilizers should not be applied from fourteen days before the harvesting date. Fresh poultry manure must not be used as a source of manure except it is used as one of the materials for composting. Poultry manure should always be used when it is cured. Human/pig/dog/cat droppings cannot be used as an organic source of manure because they have a complex digestive system and if inorganic substances were consumed it may take a very long time for it to be broken down/digested, therefore it is advised for it to be totally avoided.

 

3.6 Pesticides and Herbicides

Local adaptive methods are used to control pesticides, there are organic pesticides such                neem plant where extracts from parts of these plants are used as pesticides:Neem leaves/tree back are soaked in cold water for days such the active ingredients in the leaves/ tree back are extracted into the water (1 kg of plant part to 10 litres of water) or the leaves/tree back can be put into boiling water and cooked for thirty minutes then the extract is used as pesticides. The extract is more effective if grinded dry chilli pepper is added to it. However neem seed oil is more efficient than the other part because it contains higher concentration of the active ingredient at 10ml to 1 litre of water. There are no organic herbicides in the country but proper management practices can be used such as intensive tillage to remove roots of stubborn weed before planting, hoe/hand weeding, use of weeding machines such as weed slashers, cover cropping, inter cropping, increased planting density for crops that can tolerate that, use of plstic mulch, etc. it should be noted that implements used in an organic farm cannot be used in an organic farm.

4.0. Organic Livestock Production

The major constraint of organic livestock production is that most sources of antibiotics, vaccines and feed are from inorganic source. In organic poultry production extracts of moringa leaf, bitter leaf, aloe Vera and marigold are used as sources of antibiotics and there are also other indigenous knowledge of poultry vaccines. Due to the physiology of birds, for optimum and organic production management systems must allow for free movement of birds to stroll and fly. Farmers can raise feed ingredient organically. The use of methionine and mycine as a source of fish feed serves as a constraint to organic aquaculture as there are no substitute organic inputs discovered.

Rearing/cultivation of organic honey bee entails keeping a buffer zone of about three kilometers (3km) radius around where the bee hives are kept so that when the bees go to get their food is still within the organic field.

 

 

4.1. Ranch Management

The ranch in which animals graze or their feed is gotten from must be organically managed from sources of planting material to harvest to ensure a complete organic animal production. Varieties must be used

5.0. What Makes a Farm Organic?

A farm is considered organic after taking into consideration all that is discussed above and also acquiring a certification for identification and trust of the produce gotten by the consumer. Therefore what makes any product/produce organic is standards/certification and when this is gotten right there are labels attached to this product for easy identification. Certification of an organic farm comes in three (3) levels:

  • Individual certification
  • Participatory Guarantee System (PGS) certification and
  • Third party certification

Individual certification entails being recommended by people as an organic practioner, it could be neighbors/people in the same community or locality, friends, acquaintances, etc.

PGS is a form of certification in which there is an agreement between all the stakeholders in the agriculture chain (the farmer, the certification body, the researchers the middle man and the consumer) who are bonded by rules and common vision. PGS helps in improving the farmer’s production capacity, advocacy, marketing and certification/standardization.  An example of PGS certification group in Nigeria is National Association of Organic Practitioners (NOAN) which has been in operation since 2009 has her head office in Ibadan and has the capacity to operate throughout the country. PGS also makes third party certification easy for the farmer. The third party certification certifies farm produce for exportation purposes.

6.0 Feed Back

Questions:

  1. How do NOAN ascertain the quality of a flowing water used in organic farm? Mrs. Udonyah
  2. What if a farmer has issue with his source of water and goes for an alternative which is contaminated, how does NOAN identify that?By MfonOnunkak
  3. Could brewery waste be used for fertilizer seeing that it has been synthetically processed? By Mr. Abara
  4. How long can poultry manure be kept to cure before used as fertilizer? By Victor Edame
  5. Is organic certification different from NAFDAC and SON certification? By MrBakare
  6. What if a farmer has fence round the farm, is the buffer zone still necessary? By MrBakare
  7. Composting human waste and sawdust obtainable in organic agriculture? By Mr. Abara
  8. Neem seed oil, are there methods of extracting it locally?

Responses:

  1. The water is analysed from time to time during inspection, however flowing water is preferable to be used in organic agriculture than stagnant water.
  2. The farmer must always show the certification body its alternate source of water, however if emergency cases comes up the farmer must be careful on his alternate sources of water because if discovered during inspection, his/her certificate will be withdrawn. Ignorance is not an excuse.
  3. Brewery waste is seen to be an effective organic fertilizer source when composted, because the process of composting helps to break down pathogenic and synthetic contaminations. However, any fertilizer that has nitrogen content more than 5% cannot be used as an organic fertilizer.
  4. Poultry manure should be kept to cure for eight weeks or composted before using it. Fresh poultry manure if applied immediately releases more nitrogen but decreases the storability of such product due to excess No2.
  5. Organic certification is different from NAFDAC or SON certification because these institutions are more concerned about hygiene certification than health or ecosystem sustainability, there are products imported into the country with NAFDAC number that are not health conducive for consumption. National organic standards are higher because when this standards were drafted the SON and NAFDAC were represented and part of their standards are included in the organic standards.
  6. If the fences are high then it may be permitted because the essence of the buffer zone is to avoid pollution with inorganic inputs by any form of erosion.
  7. Human, dog and pig waste is not allowed in organic agriculture because the metabolism of their digestive system does not allow for easy breakdown of chemical contaminants even after three months.

 

Contributions/suggestions:

  • Victor Edame defined organic agriculture as the non-use of organic fertilizer
  • Organic agriculture ensures the safety and health of soil, plants, humans and animals – Mrs. Benedict.
  • Sadiq defined organic agriculture simply as a form of agriculture that uses non synthetic inputs.
  • Abara suggested that NOAN should make a list of all inputs that are seen as organic and make them available to members to avoid members defaulting the standards.
  • Mrs suggested that neem extracted can also be used to soak planting materials such as cassava stems to prevent termite attack when planted.
  • Mrs Benedict said that neem oil can be extracted locally, farmers blend them, cook them till the oil settles on the top of the water, the oil is then extracted and dehydrated of water. Then the oil is fit for use.

 

 

7.0 CONCLUSION

Ignorance in organic agriculture is not an excuse therefore good knowledge to organic agricultural practices is required for sustainable agriculture by enhancing livelihoods, income, export and foreign exchange earnings and reduced rural-urban migration. Any farmer going into organic production must have a ready market already for his/ her produce. The use of only organic approved methodologies must be used for handling and production in an organic farm.